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Rare & Endangered Species

   Within Uvalde County, Texas a variety of rare and endangered species occur.  Some of these species were extirpated long ago, others may be migratory and some hold on in small pockets of undeveloped or protected areas such as State & National parks or other protected lands such as Nature Conservancy sanctuaries.   As human populations and development increase, protected lands become more important to preserve and protect declining species.
  Texas Parks & Wildlife tracks the 48 listed species listed below within Uvalde County.  Note: Other rare and endangered species could occur in the County, especially during animal migratory periods or after severe storms and flooding.  Explanations of status rankings are found at the bottom of the species list.






















Federal Status

State Status

Valdina Farms sinkhole salamander

Eurycea troglodytes complex



isolated, intermittent pools of a subterranean streams and sinkhole in Nueces, Frio, Guadalupe, and Pedernales watersheds within Edwards Aquifer area







Federal Status

State Status

American Peregrine Falcon

Falco peregrinus anatum



year-round resident and local breeder in west Texas, nests in tall cliff eyries; also, migrant across state from more northern breeding areas in US and Canada, winters along coast and farther south; occupies wide range of habitats during migration, including urban, concentrations along coast and barrier islands; low-altitude migrant, stopovers at leading landscape edges such as lake shores, coastlines, and barrier islands.

Arctic Peregrine Falcon

Falco peregrinus tundrius



migrant throughout state from subspecies’ far northern breeding range, winters along coast and farther south; occupies wide range of habitats during migration, including urban, concentrations along coast and barrier islands; low-altitude migrant, stopovers at leading landscape edges such as lake shores, coastlines, and barrier islands.

Baird's Sparrow

Ammodramus bairdii



shortgrass prairie with scattered low bushes and matted vegetation; mostly migratory in western half of State, though winters in Mexico and just across Rio Grande into Texas from Brewster through Hudspeth counties

Black-capped Vireo

Vireo atricapilla



oak-juniper woodlands with distinctive patchy, two-layered aspect; shrub and tree layer with open, grassy spaces; requires foliage reaching to ground level for nesting cover; return to same territory, or one nearby, year after year; deciduous and broad-leaved shrubs and trees provide insects for feeding; species composition less important than presence of adequate broad-leaved shrubs, foliage to ground level, and required structure; nesting season March-late summer

Golden-cheeked Warbler

Setophaga chrysoparia



juniper-oak woodlands; dependent on Ashe juniper (also known as cedar) for long fine bark strips, only available from mature trees, used in nest construction; nests are placed in various trees other than Ashe juniper; only a few mature junipers or nearby cedar brakes can provide the necessary nest material; forage for insects in broad-leaved trees and shrubs; nesting late March-early summer

Interior Least Tern

Sterna antillarum athalassos



subspecies is listed only when inland (more than 50 miles from a coastline); nests along sand and gravel bars within braided streams, rivers; also know to nest on man-made structures (inland beaches, wastewater treatment plants, gravel mines, etc); eats small fish and crustaceans, when breeding forages within a few hundred feet of colony

Mountain Plover

Charadrius montanus



breeding: nests on high plains or shortgrass prairie, on ground in shallow depression; nonbreeding: shortgrass plains and bare, dirt (plowed) fields; primarily insectivorous

Peregrine Falcon

Falco peregrinus



both subspecies migrate across the state from more northern breeding areas in US and Canada to winter along coast and farther south; subspecies (F. p. anatum) is also a resident breeder in west Texas; the two subspecies’ listing statuses differ, F.p. tundrius is no longer listed in Texas; but because the subspecies are not easily distinguishable at a distance, reference is generally made only to the species level; see subspecies for habitat.

Sennett's Hooded Oriole

Icterus cucullatus sennetti



often builds nests in and of Spanish moss (Tillandsia unioides); feeds on invertebrates, fruit, and nectar; breeding March to August

Sprague's Pipit

Anthus spragueii



only in Texas during migration and winter, mid September to early April; short to medium distance, diurnal migrant; strongly tied to native upland prairie, can be locally common in coastal grasslands, uncommon to rare further west; sensitive to patch size and avoids edges.

Western Burrowing Owl

Athene cunicularia hypugaea



open grasslands, especially prairie, plains, and savanna, sometimes in open areas such as vacant lots near human habitation or airports; nests and roosts in abandoned burrows

Zone-tailed Hawk

Buteo albonotatus



arid open country, including open deciduous or pine-oak woodland, mesa or mountain county, often near watercourses, and wooded canyons and tree-lined rivers along middle-slopes of desert mountains; nests in various habitats and sites, ranging from small trees in lower desert, giant cottonwoods in riparian areas, to mature conifers in high mountain regions







Federal Status

State Status

A cave obligate crustaean

Monodella texana



subaquatic, subterranean obligate; underground freshwater aquifers







Federal Status

State Status

Blue sucker

Cycleptus elongatus



larger portions of major rivers in Texas; usually in channels and flowing pools with a moderate current; bottom type usually of exposed bedrock, perhaps in combination with hard clay, sand, and gravel; adults winter in deep pools and move upstream in spring to spawn on riffles

Edwards Plateau shiner

Cyprinella lepida



Edwards Plateau portion of Nueces basin, mainstem and tributaries of Nueces, Frio, and Sabinal rivers; clear, cool, spring-fed headwater creeks; usually over gravel

Guadalupe bass

Micropterus treculii



endemic to perennial streams of the Edward's Plateau region; introduced in Nueces River system

Headwater catfish

Ictalurus lupus



originally throughout streams of the Edwards Plateau and the Rio Grande basin, currently limited to Rio Grande drainage, including Pecos River basin; springs, and sandy and rocky riffles, runs, and pools of clear creeks and small rivers

Nueces River shiner

Cyprinella sp 2



Edwards Plateau portion of Nueces basin; Clear, cool, spring-fed headwater creeks

Nueces roundnose minnow

Dionda serena



Edwards Plateau portion of Nueces basin: mainstream and tributaries of Nueces, Frio and Sabinal rivers







Federal Status

State Status

A mayfly

Allenhyphes michaeli



TX Hill Country; mayflies distinguished by aquatic larval stage; adult stage generally found in shoreline vegetation

Coahuila giant skipper

Agathymus remingtoni valverdiensis



with the foodplant Lechuguilla (Agave lechuguilla) in desert hills and thorn forest

Leonora's dancer damselfly

Argia leonorae



south central and western Texas; small streams and seepages

Sage sphinx

Sphinx eremitoides



desert, grassland; sandy prairie or desert with sage; caterpillars feed on leaves of sage; adults emerge late spring or summer, but little information available; immatures develop directly to the pupal stage probably in 5-7 weeks, and pupae overwinter underground







Federal Status

State Status

Black bear

Ursus americanus



bottomland hardwoods and large tracts of inaccessible forested areas; due to field characteristics similar to Louisiana Black Bear (LT, T), treat all east Texas black bears as federal and state listed Threatened

Cave myotis bat

Myotis velifer



colonial and cave-dwelling; also roosts in rock crevices, old buildings, carports, under bridges, and even in abandoned Cliff Swallow (Hirundo pyrrhonota) nests; roosts in clusters of up to thousands of individuals; hibernates in limestone caves of Edwards Plateau and gypsum cave of Panhandle during winter; opportunistic insectivore

Frio pocket gopher

Geomys texensis bakeri



associated with nearly level Atco soil, which is well-drained and consists of sandy surface layers with loam extending to as deep as two meters

Ghost-faced bat

Mormoops megalophylla



colonially roosts in caves, crevices, abandoned mines, and buildings; insectivorous; breeds late winter-early spring; single offspring born per year

Gray wolf

Canis lupus



extirpated; formerly known throughout the western two-thirds of the state in forests, brushlands, or grasslands


Herpailurus yaguarondi



thick brushlands, near water favored; 60 to 75 day gestation, young born sometimes twice per year in March and August, elsewhere the beginning of the rainy season and end of the dry season


Leopardus pardalis



dense chaparral thickets; mesquite-thorn scrub and live oak mottes; avoids open areas; breeds and raises young June-November

Red wolf

Canis rufus



extirpated; formerly known throughout eastern half of Texas in brushy and forested areas, as well as coastal prairies

White-nosed coati

Nasua narica



woodlands, riparian corridors and canyons; most individuals in Texas probably transients from Mexico; diurnal and crepuscular; very sociable; forages on ground and in trees; omnivorous; may be susceptible to hunting, trapping, and pet trade







Federal Status

State Status

Reticulate collared lizard

Crotaphytus reticulatus



requires open brush-grasslands; thorn-scrub vegetation, usually on well-drained rolling terrain of shallow gravel, caliche, or sandy soils; often on scattered flat rocks below escarpments or isolated rock outcrops among scattered clumps of prickly pear and mesquite

Spot-tailed earless lizard

Holbrookia lacerata



central and southern Texas and adjacent Mexico; moderately open prairie-brushland; fairly flat areas free of vegetation or other obstructions, including disturbed areas; eats small invertebrates; eggs laid underground

Texas horned lizard

Phrynosoma cornutum



open, arid and semi-arid regions with sparse vegetation, including grass, cactus, scattered brush or scrubby trees; soil may vary in texture from sandy to rocky; burrows into soil, enters rodent burrows, or hides under rock when inactive; breeds March-September

Texas indigo snake

Drymarchon melanurus erebennus



Texas south of the Guadalupe River and Balcones Escarpment; thornbush-chaparral woodlands of south Texas, in particular dense riparian corridors; can do well in suburban and irrigated croplands if not molested or indirectly poisoned; requires moist microhabitats, such as rodent burrows, for shelter

Texas tortoise

Gopherus berlandieri



open brush with a grass understory is preferred; open grass and bare ground are avoided; when inactive occupies shallow depressions at base of bush or cactus, sometimes in underground burrows or under objects; longevity greater than 50 years; active March-November; breeds April-November







Federal Status

State Status

Big red sage

Salvia pentstemonoides



Texas endemic; moist to seasonally wet, steep limestone outcrops on seeps within canyons or along creek banks; occasionally on clayey to silty soils of creek banks and terraces, in partial shade to full sun; basal leaves conspicuous for much of the year; flowering June-October

Boerne bean

Phaseolus texensis



Narrowly endemic to rocky canyons in eastern and southern Edwards Plateau  occurring on limestone soils in mixed woodlands, on limestone cliffs and outcrops, frequently along creeks.

Bracted twistflower

Streptanthus bracteatus



Texas endemic; shallow, well-drained gravelly clays and clay loams over limestone in oak juniper woodlands and associated openings, on steep to moderate slopes and in canyon bottoms; several known soils include Tarrant, Brackett, or Speck over Edwards, Glen Rose, and Walnut geologic formations; populations fluctuate widely from year to year, depending on winter rainfall; flowering mid April-late May, fruit matures and foliage withers by early summer

Hill Country wild-mercury

Argythamnia aphoroides



Texas endemic; mostly in bluestem-grama grasslands associated with plateau live oak woodlands on shallow to moderately deep clays and clay loams over limestone on rolling uplands, also in partial shade of oak-juniper woodlands in gravelly soils on rocky limestone slopes; flowering April-May with fruit persisting until midsummer

Sabinal prairie-clover

Dalea sabinalis



Texas endemic: information sketchy, but probably in rocky soils or on limestone outcrops in sparse grassland openings in juniper-oak woodlands; flowering April-May or May -June

Springrun whitehead

Shinnersia rivularis



in shallow, slow-moving water in small, usually spring-fed streams and rivers arising from calcareous outcrops; abandoned river channel fed by a strong perennial stream, rooted in fine-textured sediments, with stems entirely submerged and only the flowering branch tips appearing above water surface; in slowly flowing water up to 0.3-0.4 m deep but appeared to be absent from deeper water, shaded for most of the day; also in water 0.5-1 m deep, rooted in a mucky to gravelly bottom; flowering throughout the year, most reliably March-May

Texas greasebush

Glossopetalon texense



Texas endemic; dry limestone ledges, chalk bluffs, and limestone outcrops; one population is on an extremely steep slope, inaccessible to most herbivores; flowering period uncertain, including at least June-December

Texas largeseed bittercress

Cardamine macrocarpa var texana



seasonally moist, loamy soils in pine-oak woodlands at high elevations in the Chisos and Davis mountains; also moderate elevations in oak-juniper woodlands in Kinney and Uvalde counties; flowering in early spring and usually withering by the beginning of summer, sometimes persisting and flowering intermittently through autumn depending on rainfall

Texas mock-orange

Philadelphus texensis



limestone outcrops on cliffs and rocky slopes, on boulders in mesic canyon bottoms, usually in shade of mixed evergreen-deciduous slope woodland forest; flowering April-May, but readily recognizable throughout the growing season

Tobusch fishhook cactus

Sclerocactus brevihamatus ssp tobuschii



Texas endemic; shallow, moderately alkaline, stony clay and clay  loams over massive fractured limestone; usually on level to slightly sloping hilltops; occasionally on relatively level areas on steeper slopes, and in rocky floodplains; usually open areas within a mosaic of oak-juniper woodlands, occasionally in pine-oak woodlands, rarely in cenizo shrublands or little bluestem grasslands; sites are usually open with only herbaceous cover, although the cactus may be somewhat protected by rocks, grasses, or spikemosses; flowering (late January-) February-March (rarely early April)













Explanations of Status Rankings

Federal Status:

DL = Federally Delisted
LT = Listed "Threatened"
LE = Listed "Endangered"
C = Federal Candidate for Listing; formerly Category 1 Candidate 
T/SA = Threatened by similarity of appearance
NL = Not listed

State Status:

T = Listed "Threatened"
E = Listed "Endangered"

More information about rare & endangered species in Texas can be found at the Texas Parks & Wildlife link below: 


Pg. 7: Herpetofaunal Studies